The FEM-PrEP clinical trial—implemented by FHI in partnership with research centers in Africa—is designed to study whether HIV-negative women who are at higher risk of being exposed to HIV can safely use a daily dose of a pill called Truvada to prevent infection. This study was funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), with early funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
The FEM-PrEP outcome is surprising and disappointing, given a number of earlier studies suggesting the promise of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using antiretrovirals. Most recently, the iPrEX study showed that use of Truvada can prevent infection in men who have sex with men at risk of HIV.
There are a number of possible reasons for the study findings, including low adherence to study regimen, a true lack of effect of the product among women (versus men who have sex with men), or other factors still to be determined. FHI will be conducting further analyses and will share additional findings in the coming months. The IDMC commended the trial team on a study conducted to a high standard with good follow-up and careful attention to good clinical practice and ethical standards.
Only preliminary FEM-PrEP data are available at this time:
- As of February 18, 2011, the study had screened 3,752 women and enrolled 1,951: 739 in Bondo, Kenya; 764 in Pretoria, South Africa; 432 in Bloemfontein, South Africa; and 16 in Arusha, Tanzania. The most common reason for women not being enrolled was existing HIV infection. The overall HIV prevalence was 21 percent among women screened for enrollment across the sites.
- Preliminary data indicate about 90 percent of the participants were retained in the study.
- Adherence to study product was approximately 95 percent when the study product was available for use.
- Women reported an average of 3.7 vaginal sex acts in the 7 days prior to enrollment, consistent with the average of 3.6 acts reported during follow-up.
- As of February 18, the approximate rate of new HIV infections among trial participants was 5 percent per year. A total of 56 new HIV infections had occurred, with an equal number of infections in those participants assigned to Truvada and those assigned to a placebo pill.
- Women participating in FEM-PrEP used an effective method of contraception at the time of enrollment—66 percent were using injectables and 30 percent were using oral contraceptives. The overall pregnancy rate was 9 percent; the highest pregnancy rates were among women using oral contraceptives.
- The use of Truvada in FEM-PrEP was associated with some known side effects that were not serious.
Among study participants randomly assigned to the Truvada arm, observed pregnancy rates were higher than among women randomly assigned to the placebo arm. This is unexpected and inconsistent with known drug interactions involving tenofovir (TDF) and contraceptive hormones, and with known metabolic effects of emtricitabine (FTC). Possible explanations include differential pill adherence by group, previously undefined drug-drug interactions, chance, or a combination of factors (including yet unknown factors). FHI will conduct further analyses of these data.
FHI and its partners are especially grateful to the women whose willingness to participate and commitment to the study were essential. To the extent possible, all participants have been notified of the decision and are being asked to come to the study clinics for final visits. Study participants who became infected with HIV during the study are being followed by the study team for an additional year and are referred for appropriate medical care and treatment in their community.
When the follow-up of the HIV-uninfected women is complete in a few months’ time, FHI will be conducting in-depth analyses of study data and blood specimens collected during the study to examine the factors contributing to the observed outcomes. FHI will also collaborate with scientists conducting other PrEP studies to compare findings and to better understand the results.
When available, the final results from FEM-PrEP will make a strong contribution to our understanding of the use of antiretrovirals for HIV prevention. FHI, USAID, and research partners in Africa are committed to finding new technologies and developing new strategies to protect women from HIV.
For more information, see the following fact sheets:
- Questions and Answers (PDF, 222 KB)
- About FEM-PrEP (PDF, 263 KB)
- Key Findings (PDF, 246 KB)
- Adherence (PDF, 230 KB)
- Community Engagement (PDF, 242 KB)
- Drug Resistance (PDF, 229 KB)
- Pregnancy and Contraceptive Effectiveness in the FEM-PrEP Trial (PDF, 217 KB)
- Safety (PDF, 220 KB)
- Socio-Behavioral Aspects of FEM-PrEP (PDF, 255 KB)